Police system in the U.S.

Introduction

The police chiefs in United States are responsible for evaluating employees on a yearly basis and also sketch out the employee’s personal developments. They are also involved in collaborating with the officials for law enforcement from different jurisdictions on various investigations and in confinement and apprehension of suspects (McDavid, 2000). The principles of management control usually help the police officers by and large extend to solve most of the departmental problems that accrue in most of their areas of work.    

In the first control case where two police officers who are charged by the state police for being involved in an array of thefts from local businesses in the town, it clearly implied that the police officers in point of fact helped in fueling the increased theft reports. This evidently signifies that were operational problems within the departments that necessitated the previous chief to be fired. As a new police chief, several principles of management control need to be adopted to ensure that similar problem do not occur in future.

To solve this problem that seems to be attached within the police officers in Sunny Grove both governance and management control principles should be used. One of the basic principles involves fairness and integrity. As a police chief, ethical practices and culture need be inculcated that will be percolated and displayed to the police officers so as to create culture which precisely reflects integrity, fairness and ethics.  A code of conduct will be designed that will be exercised in all departments. Conduct that is purely aimed at destructing this confidence and respect should actually be prohibited. Therefore the department’s policy will be geared at inspecting circumstances that reveal that an officer has slotted in unbecoming conduct so as to inflict the appropriate disciplinary action.

The policy will in turn be valid to the entire officers of this society who are connected in official duties both outside and within the geographical jurisdiction of the agency. To instill integrity within the departments it will require that the police officers will at any time not engage in bribery and corruption acts. In respect to these then officers will be required to refuse to accept any promises, favors, presents, gifts, gratuities and subscriptions.

Efficiency of controls principle can by a large extend help in ensuring that the police officers’ problems are precisely attended. As a police chief, the causes of the police officers being involved in theft cases should be identified at the minimum possible cost to avoid similar future cases to reoccur. Therefore a lot of effort should be exerted in the control so as to find out the possible causes of the problems within the departments. It is also good to note that controls that gravely hinder the authority of the police officers are held to be inefficient.

Control responsibility principle can be used to address the problems within this agency. The structure of the departments needs to be changed in view of combating identity thefts and other related thefts concerning business organizations by the police officers. In order to ensure that the police officers do not participate in any theft activities as a police chief I will carry out crime prevention surveys, write down investigative reports and clearly respond to inquiries of the citizens in Sunny Grove regarding any crimes associated with the police officers. In addition the principle of action is also relevant in ensuring that the problems that are associated with the police officers are efficiently solved. Corrective actions within the departments that may help in averting these problems will include staff motivation and replacement of some of the police officers.

In the second control case the traffic clerk was convicted of stealing money from the traffic fines leading to serious deficits that necessitated borrowing of funds from other departments. This clearly reflects fraud and theft that dominated the auditors in this police post. As a new police chief, fraud and theft within the departments need to be stopped by putting into use several management control principles.

The principle of accountability and transparency can be truly applied to help in curbing fraud problems within the traffic court clerks.  A board of selectmen will be established that will be purely responsible for the internal control of the agency and in reviewing its efficiency. The board will always be geared at sustaining a sound scheme regarding the internal control of their assets and also institute official and transparent agreements for reflecting on how they should apply principles on internal control and financial reporting (Wilson & Petersilia, 2011).

The individuality control principle will be fully utilized in the view of addressing these problems. To ensure that the controls are efficient, they will be instituted in way that is consistent with individual needs, competence, operational responsibility and positions of the concerned parties. As management reports regarding internal control are reviewed, the board should by a large extend consider the significant risks and try to assess how they can be spotted, appraised and controlled. The principle of direct control should be applied to the traffic court clerks and other police officers who are associated with cases of fraud and theft within and outside the departments. Direct controls that are solely intended to prevent errors within the departments should be fully used (MacVean & Neyroud, 2012). As a police chief, full direct control will be exercised to ensure that the duties in all departments are separated and every party allocated his or her duties to execute.

Conclusion

Operational problems within department can actually have adverse effects to the agencies. They can make head of departments to be fired or resign their jobs. In order to ensure that future problems do not reoccur, departmental changes need to be instituted. Accountability, transparency and efficiency within departments can only be attained through the amalgamation of several management control principles.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

MacVean, A., & Neyroud, P. (2012).Police ethics and values. Exeter: Learning Matters.

McDavid, S. (2000). Career opportunities in law enforcement, security, and protective services. New York: Facts on File.

Wilson, J. Q., & Petersilia, J. (2011).Crime and public policy ([New ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

Cited: AceMyHW

 

 

Anatomy and Physiology

The first step involved in the generation of action potential is the depolarization towards threshold. It will be realized that before an action potential starts, the local currents should depolarize an excitable membrane area to threshold.Hydrangeas

In the second step, sodium channels are made active and are further accompanied by rapid depolarization. In this step it will be recognized that the sodium activation channels usually open at threshold and cell membranes continue to turn out to be more permeable to sodium ions. The sodium ions generally sprint into the cytoplasm by being impelled by the huge electrochemical gradient.  In this site, rapid depolarization begins. The inner membrane immediately changes and now holds more ions that are positive and the potential of the trans-membrane clearly alters to more positive values of +66 mV which are near the potential equilibrium of sodium. In generation of action potential the first two steps are good examples of a positive feedback because it happens that a small depolarization enhances the generation of a bigger depolarization.

In the third step the sodium channels are deactivated and potassium channels are instead activated. Sodium channels commence to close when the potential of the trans-membrane move towards +30 mV. In most cases this step is essentially referred to as the sodium inactivation channel. Potassium channels begin to open up as the sodium gates are inactivated. The chemical and electrical gradients generally tend to good turn the movement of potassium ions away from the cell. Re-polarization starts due to the unexpected positive charges lose that moves the potential of the trans-membrane to the resting levels.

In the fourth step, normal permeability returns. The sodium channels that are regulated by voltage stay to be inactivated up to the point when the membrane clearly re-polarizes to threshold. It will be realized that during this time they recuperate to their ordinary status although they are able to open. As the membranes arrive at their usual resting potential of about -70 mV, the potassium channels that are regulated by the voltage starts to close. During this time, the potassium ions get out of the cell more rapidly resulting to hyper-tension which makes the potential of the trans-membrane to be close to the potassium equilibrium potential that is usually about -90 mV. The potential of the trans-membrane go back to the ordinary resting levels as the potassium channels that are normally regulated by the voltage close. It will be noticed that the membrane gets into a pre-stimulation condition and action power ceases. It is good to note that the relative refractory period begins as the sodium channels recuperate their ordinary resting state and proceeds until the potential of the trans-membrane becomes stable at ordinary resting levels.

An example of monosynaptic reflex is the knee-jerk and patellar reflex. To demonstrate the steps that occur in a monosynaptic reflex we can use the example of a knee-jerk. The following steps occur:

  1. The muscle spindles normally sense a tap on a tendon that is usually fixed to the kneecap.
  2. The muscle spindle then creates nerve impulses patterns that are transmitted down the sensory nerve fiber.
  3. Neurotransmitters are then freed to the motor neutrons by the nerve terminals producing post-synaptic potentials that are excitatory to the body cells and dendrites of the motor neurons.
  4. Action potentials are then produced by the motor neuron that results to acetylcholine release from its muscles’ terminals.
  5. The muscle then reacts to the acetylcholine through contracting and depolarizing.

Examples of polysynaptic reflexes include, pulling a leg as one step on a spiky object or when pulls his/her hand after handling a hot stove. To show the steps that occur in polysynaptic reflex we can demonstrate using a case example of when you step on a sharp thorn. The following steps occur:

  1. The sharp thorn actually arouses pain receptors in the foot.
  2. This in reality sets in motion a sensory neuron.
  3. The sensory neurons by and large synapse with the inter-neurons inside the spinal cord making the motor neurons to be stimulated.
  4. The stimulated motor neurons cause contraction of the flexor muscles.
  5. The constricting flexor muscle raises the foot out of the thorn.

Religion

Rabbinic story is believed to be the leading outlet of rabbinic ideology which presents the world-view in a typical way. Among the main types of discourse in Talmud (a key version of the Jewish oral law considered to be as important as Torah) the rabbinic story is one of them. It is a unique genre in literature which is easy to differentiate from the Talmudic background because it uses the narrative mode to describe post-biblical characters most especially the rabbis (Hezser, 1993). The main aim of this paper is to discuss my understanding of the rabbinic story and its possible impact in my life.

Insights gained from the story

The story was narrated by the people who used to consciously invoke motifs which used to be applied to the figure of Hermes by the pagan neighbors of the rabbinic people. The rabbinic tales contain figures such as those of the angel of death and Satan where play some given functions. I wonder what invisible role this figures could be playing beyond the way the narrators have used it in the story.Without such supernatural elements the in the story, the story will not seem to have any meaning. The story teller seems to have included it for a reason. Elsewhere, the legal type of the rabbinic stories can play a role as a legal precedent whereby if a rabbi gave a statement or did something that became very important in the determination of what became law in the generations that followed.

 

 

How it might affect own life

The story helps me to appreciate the significance of Christianity as religion since it does not hold to strict laws which were at times formed by an individual in the rabbinic story.

Briefly state the story that you read

The story is mainly contempt to Herod’s pedigree. On assuming power, He kills a lot of rabbis since they would have used the bible, to call the prohibition of Deuteronomy kings from interacting with foreign Kings.