Welcome to the Community

Great artists were once thought to be a part of a movement filled with dynamism and excitement, at the forefront of human creativity and global change. Today artists reside in communities – static, insular, and cut off from the world around them. These communities offer a glimpse into an ahistorical, often narcissistic, paranoid vision, that is all too real for its participants.

The whole community-artist mindset starts with an outlandishly ahistorical critique of modern economics. All buying and selling becomes inauthentic and devoid of emotion, coldhearted in fact. In the community, authenticity and passion are the sine qua non. The community does not permit those who feign emotion to enter. Walls are erected. An embargo on villainous trade is hastily pronounced.

With an eye towards some mythic past, one community artist writes, “Bartering was an economic system that filled material needs by exchange of goods, but also fostered human relationships and interdependence.” Bartering, so it turns out, is diametrically opposed to modern society, “because of its emphasis on competition, our American brand of capitalism obscures that which people really need, other people. Community.” Here, in a practice much like secret santa and company potlucks, typical in white collar America, the community artist proclaims that the true self can be revealed through sharing. These ethical platitudes, no different in corporate culture, have a powerful grip expressed by the ease in which anthropological spoofs can be mass produced in contemporary society.

Jules Adolphe Breton


Yet, latent within this character type is a profound insecurity about the ephemeral quality of human interaction, the waning of friendship, and long-term love relationships. The philosophy mirrors Facebook; a world in which all friendships become acquaintances and no acquaintances can be given up.

Without being self-aware, community art spaces boiled down to the essence the commonly held complaint that openings at commercial galleries are only spaces for hobnobbing. In the community art space hobnobbing becomes an elaborate mirror of itself. Indeed it becomes the art. To give hobnobbing authenticity the community artist often justifies the practice with a folksy, romantic, view of impoverished localities in far away lands. Others’ abject plight becomes a battering ram for exposing the artists’ narcissistic feelings, anxiety over insignificance, and obscurity, within a de-centered and vast art world, whose extravagance the community artist loathes.

Though it is often presented as commonsensical that artists are by nature leftists, a more apt term might be “progressive.” Progressivism was defined by an obsessive concern over fantastic enjoyments, a sense that the world was moving towards an immense apocalypse, a compulsive fixation on the greed of bankers, and an attachment to native simplicity. Harking back to classic populist themes the community artist, sometimes called an activist-artist, imbues introspective cliches and self loathing into this old american tradition.

As one community artist expresses, “I feel like my demographic/neighbors/friends/generation have failed me and remain content to gamely tap on their iPhones while massive pillaging and injustice continue to be perpetrated on a global scale.” And, the community artists acute sense of injustice leads to a telling speculation, “Weren’t there supposed to be more bankers committing suicide?” With this most peculiar nostalgia for economic meltdown, the crux of matter is then revealed, “Now I’m the one who is depressed; I’m tired of waiting, what should I do?” Alas, without the prestige of being a banker, an important man of finance with a sense of self-mastery, everyday helplessness lacks drama and a place in history books. Typical of this character, a great deal of anxiety is placed on the insignificance of the self in history, paired with psychological parody, and an introspective self-mockery.

Behind the gift economy and food democracy, lurks a powerful contempt for ones peers. With a classic sense of wounded narcissism, one artist divulges, “there are people who ARE PAID relatively well to do similar kinds of labor but they do it with a bad attitude, poor follow-through with lame ideas, and treating people as sucky as possible all along the way.” And what is most troubling to the author is that this repugnance continues even though he or she has a “genuine commitment to producing interesting, provocative and challenging culture.”

The Death of Maryanne Amacher

Until recently one could take a unique solace, that alone on a hill in upstate New York a mad thinker was hard at work manufacturing sounds never heard before, and wild futuristic theories previously unthunk. One didn’t need to know what exactly the sonic research was, how the madness manifested specifically, or the current state of the musical art; all one needed to know was that the visceral imagination would go on plodding sans distraction, and that some sort of abstract formulation of auditory utopia was in the making. Maryanne Amacher’s eccentric, modernist sound art slipped under the radar of a music society moving in a much different trajectory. Up on the hill, the forging of a new ideology towards music took shape literally within the music itself.

Symbolically speaking, the recent death of Maryanne Amacher is the rapid decline of an era of avant-garde futurism in music. As one of the early pioneers of modern electronic music, Maryanne Amacher represented a certain school of thought arising out of post-war America, which was blatantly fascinated with technological advances as a method out of historical compositional problems. This type of mid-century avant-garde music had numerous expressions, most prominently music concrete, which spread from France to Japan and as far as ‘Persia’, to minimalism. Composers previously trained on acoustic instruments rapidly eschewed their backgrounds on the basis of its orthodoxy, and identified early computers, modular synthesis, impulse generators, tape, and other state of the art technologies as the blatant inversion of stagnation in musical imagination. Karlheinz Stockausen was arguably the first to explicitly identify electronics as an answer to a problem in music history, and the first to create an ideology rooted in an electronic music that could potentially answer these problems. For Stockhausen electronics were the first clean slate for music, as sounds could be ‘built’ and constructed from nothing other than the composer’s pure imagination, and with such blank slate the previous world would disintegrate. Electronic material always manifests out of ideas not-so-freely floating around technological innovation and clever constructions within technique. Stockhausen’s was an ideological paradigm and a utopic program – one which Amacher studied.

Much of Stockhausen’s experiments were idiosyncratic of his vision – he more or less invented the impulse generator as a way to manipulate tone from the most basic of constituents – short clicks (fractions of a second) arranged in endless permutations to give the impression of variably continuous tone. But these experiments were always the by-product of a mind visualizing something far greater. Compared to Stockhausen’s vivid imagination of musical potential, the actual manifestations of that music were paltry. It’s no wonder that what lingered from these experiments would bifurcate into wild, purely rhetorical futuristic ideology on the one hand, and the confluence of physical materials like impulse generators, software, and endless streams of effects units, on the other. The difference between such an imagination and the material manifestations was too great to breach. Music today as a whole unquestionably gravitates towards the pure material side of this split, and perhaps the mobilization of a contemporary avant-garde music (or lack thereof) suffers from the degradation of an idealism bound up in its material.

Maryanne Amacher’s life work can be understood as an imperfect synthesis of these two unbreachable sides. Compositionally speaking, Amacher clearly identified with Stockhausen’s, Cage’s, and LaMonte Young’s observation that the history of western music was obsessively dominated by the theme of Time. Though all dealt with the issue in their own way, Amacher clearly intended to use technological advances as a way out of time-based music. LaMonte Young likewise used technological innovations to build a more complete experience of time through the listening body. But whereas LaMonte Young’s music was vehicular for a countercultural spiritual mysticism, Amacher’s project lay in the fundamental experience of body and sonority itself. She simply could not develop a cohesive metaphysic, no matter how hard she tried. Her naively obscure writing provoked images of a society running on nothing other than auditory impressions. Simply put, she believed in a sound art for the everyday. Maryanne Amacher’s sound art was a potent modernist expression, where nothing but material sensation is recorded, if only to show the illusion and process of that same sensation.

Negative Relations; A Compromised Art For The People

The pressure of reified bourgeois culture incites flight into the phantasm of nature, which then proves to be the herald of absolute oppression. The aesthetic nerves quiver to return to the stone age.
– Theodore Adorno

One catalyst for this essay is a recent lecture by Claire Pentecost, hosted by INCUBATE (Institute for Community Understanding Between Art and The Everyday ), an isolated lecture within their larger impetus to foster discourse in the local community about the feverish increase in public art projects. Over the past century, there has been a recurring drift from object-centric art practices which recedes into a collective fog of immaterial. Pure ‘material’, or formal art, such as painting, was targeted as vehicular for the homogenizing, false industry of culture. As a linear result artists blatantly transitioned into more performative, discursive, open-ended, and relational praxis. Relational aesthetics was a reimagining and furthering of the destabilized art practices of the 1960’s, and recent social art accelerates this destabilization. But the stress to redistribute aesthetics and encompass the masses began in early modernism, and is not merely the new anti-historical, anarchic character it sometimes fashions itself to be. T.J. Clark pinpoints what he believes to be the first instance of such dematerialization in Jacques Louis David’s painting, Death of Marat (5). For Clark, the projection of a politics for the people onto painting happened in a completely unnatural way; David’s painting had no inherently visual politics. Rather, there was a new pressure to force larger social issues into something which did not obviously contain them, in this case the French Revolution projected somewhat arbitrarily onto painting, as a means to instrumentalize it. Since 1793 (an arguable date amongst art historians) there has been a ‘contingent’ element to all art, where the visual is no longer self-subsistent, but vehicular for politics, the tether of social life in our era. Since then we have been grappling with a fundamental wrenching apart of wildly immaterial ideology, and its dissenting material counterpart.

A more obvious connection might be made between Clark’s contingency example in impressionism’s politics, and recent social art in the everyday. In his essay We Field-Women, T.J. Clark analyses Camille Pissaro’s impressionist painting depicting two women laborers in a field. Observing how a sympathy for peasant laborers imperfectly invades the painting, Clark proposes that the “peasant life was a screen, then, on which modernism projected its technical and expressive wishes”(6). The romance of the pastoral life thrives in contemporary, locally motivated art like Claire Pentecost’s, who retains a romanticized hope in an everyday laborer of Detroit, for example. Though the words we use for ‘peasant’ are now very different, the attitude remains the same: an idealization and abstraction of an everyday mass erased and retained as an artificial blank slate.

New contingent subtext to these dematerialized practices are notions that artists should not submit to their own commodification, but rather engender dialogue about the social forms residing behind them, hopefully transfiguring the type of insular art driven by the market to a more immanent and true form of exchange. Recent social art practices are not merely influenced by the 1960’s political art-project of dematerialization and discursive politics, but is rather an extension of that itself – the aftermath and the expressive dregs of that destabilization, in all its questionable forms. Social art should be understood as the living proof of proposed ideas from the 1960’s, and not entirely isolated as a movement. It is not surprising then that recent projects re-animate similar themes of ecology and abstracted theoretical dialogue within localized communities (a sharp distinction from early modernists’ program of global revolution) — idealized domains which further obscure the confused, destabilized presence of an acceptably unoriginal avant-garde, content with nostalgic aesthetic politics and homework help.

This overtly micropolitical activism deserves to be questioned instead of celebrated, as it merely alludes to larger systemic issues of capitalism. Social artists often venture into other divisions of labor, walking the fine line between complete liquidation into other labor divisions, and artistic autonomy. (such as Pentecost, who works directly with farmers but identifies as an artist) One gets the impression that these artists are increasingly content quashing the role of the artist, to such an extent that the ‘altruism’ of their art projects seem like pure symptoms of discontent with their historical defined position. Though the part serves the whole, it does not contain every other part of the whole in it. That micropolitical artists construe the divided parts as identical and individually complete is a fallacy. Each division of labor is not identical with the others, and thinking that there is mutual translatability between them is a naivete most refined in social artists, who begrudgingly transmute this Marxist legacy. Something so childish as to go against this dehumanizing mechanism – even if its method is a fundamental misunderstanding of systemics – disrupts and reveals its function moreso than when it runs smoothly. But it is mere disruption, and should not be confused as anything more. The whole sytem of production is complicated and requires specialized parts which are refined to the point of exclusivity, severed from any communication which questions its function. Though we all comprise the same mechanism, we are far from speaking the same language.

Police system in the U.S.


The police chiefs in United States are responsible for evaluating employees on a yearly basis and also sketch out the employee’s personal developments. They are also involved in collaborating with the officials for law enforcement from different jurisdictions on various investigations and in confinement and apprehension of suspects (McDavid, 2000). The principles of management control usually help the police officers by and large extend to solve most of the departmental problems that accrue in most of their areas of work.    

In the first control case where two police officers who are charged by the state police for being involved in an array of thefts from local businesses in the town, it clearly implied that the police officers in point of fact helped in fueling the increased theft reports. This evidently signifies that were operational problems within the departments that necessitated the previous chief to be fired. As a new police chief, several principles of management control need to be adopted to ensure that similar problem do not occur in future.

To solve this problem that seems to be attached within the police officers in Sunny Grove both governance and management control principles should be used. One of the basic principles involves fairness and integrity. As a police chief, ethical practices and culture need be inculcated that will be percolated and displayed to the police officers so as to create culture which precisely reflects integrity, fairness and ethics.  A code of conduct will be designed that will be exercised in all departments. Conduct that is purely aimed at destructing this confidence and respect should actually be prohibited. Therefore the department’s policy will be geared at inspecting circumstances that reveal that an officer has slotted in unbecoming conduct so as to inflict the appropriate disciplinary action.

The policy will in turn be valid to the entire officers of this society who are connected in official duties both outside and within the geographical jurisdiction of the agency. To instill integrity within the departments it will require that the police officers will at any time not engage in bribery and corruption acts. In respect to these then officers will be required to refuse to accept any promises, favors, presents, gifts, gratuities and subscriptions.

Efficiency of controls principle can by a large extend help in ensuring that the police officers’ problems are precisely attended. As a police chief, the causes of the police officers being involved in theft cases should be identified at the minimum possible cost to avoid similar future cases to reoccur. Therefore a lot of effort should be exerted in the control so as to find out the possible causes of the problems within the departments. It is also good to note that controls that gravely hinder the authority of the police officers are held to be inefficient.

Control responsibility principle can be used to address the problems within this agency. The structure of the departments needs to be changed in view of combating identity thefts and other related thefts concerning business organizations by the police officers. In order to ensure that the police officers do not participate in any theft activities as a police chief I will carry out crime prevention surveys, write down investigative reports and clearly respond to inquiries of the citizens in Sunny Grove regarding any crimes associated with the police officers. In addition the principle of action is also relevant in ensuring that the problems that are associated with the police officers are efficiently solved. Corrective actions within the departments that may help in averting these problems will include staff motivation and replacement of some of the police officers.

In the second control case the traffic clerk was convicted of stealing money from the traffic fines leading to serious deficits that necessitated borrowing of funds from other departments. This clearly reflects fraud and theft that dominated the auditors in this police post. As a new police chief, fraud and theft within the departments need to be stopped by putting into use several management control principles.

The principle of accountability and transparency can be truly applied to help in curbing fraud problems within the traffic court clerks.  A board of selectmen will be established that will be purely responsible for the internal control of the agency and in reviewing its efficiency. The board will always be geared at sustaining a sound scheme regarding the internal control of their assets and also institute official and transparent agreements for reflecting on how they should apply principles on internal control and financial reporting (Wilson & Petersilia, 2011).

The individuality control principle will be fully utilized in the view of addressing these problems. To ensure that the controls are efficient, they will be instituted in way that is consistent with individual needs, competence, operational responsibility and positions of the concerned parties. As management reports regarding internal control are reviewed, the board should by a large extend consider the significant risks and try to assess how they can be spotted, appraised and controlled. The principle of direct control should be applied to the traffic court clerks and other police officers who are associated with cases of fraud and theft within and outside the departments. Direct controls that are solely intended to prevent errors within the departments should be fully used (MacVean & Neyroud, 2012). As a police chief, full direct control will be exercised to ensure that the duties in all departments are separated and every party allocated his or her duties to execute.


Operational problems within department can actually have adverse effects to the agencies. They can make head of departments to be fired or resign their jobs. In order to ensure that future problems do not reoccur, departmental changes need to be instituted. Accountability, transparency and efficiency within departments can only be attained through the amalgamation of several management control principles.



















MacVean, A., & Neyroud, P. (2012).Police ethics and values. Exeter: Learning Matters.

McDavid, S. (2000). Career opportunities in law enforcement, security, and protective services. New York: Facts on File.

Wilson, J. Q., & Petersilia, J. (2011).Crime and public policy ([New ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

Cited: AceMyHW



Anatomy and Physiology

The first step involved in the generation of action potential is the depolarization towards threshold. It will be realized that before an action potential starts, the local currents should depolarize an excitable membrane area to threshold.Hydrangeas

In the second step, sodium channels are made active and are further accompanied by rapid depolarization. In this step it will be recognized that the sodium activation channels usually open at threshold and cell membranes continue to turn out to be more permeable to sodium ions. The sodium ions generally sprint into the cytoplasm by being impelled by the huge electrochemical gradient.  In this site, rapid depolarization begins. The inner membrane immediately changes and now holds more ions that are positive and the potential of the trans-membrane clearly alters to more positive values of +66 mV which are near the potential equilibrium of sodium. In generation of action potential the first two steps are good examples of a positive feedback because it happens that a small depolarization enhances the generation of a bigger depolarization.

In the third step the sodium channels are deactivated and potassium channels are instead activated. Sodium channels commence to close when the potential of the trans-membrane move towards +30 mV. In most cases this step is essentially referred to as the sodium inactivation channel. Potassium channels begin to open up as the sodium gates are inactivated. The chemical and electrical gradients generally tend to good turn the movement of potassium ions away from the cell. Re-polarization starts due to the unexpected positive charges lose that moves the potential of the trans-membrane to the resting levels.

In the fourth step, normal permeability returns. The sodium channels that are regulated by voltage stay to be inactivated up to the point when the membrane clearly re-polarizes to threshold. It will be realized that during this time they recuperate to their ordinary status although they are able to open. As the membranes arrive at their usual resting potential of about -70 mV, the potassium channels that are regulated by the voltage starts to close. During this time, the potassium ions get out of the cell more rapidly resulting to hyper-tension which makes the potential of the trans-membrane to be close to the potassium equilibrium potential that is usually about -90 mV. The potential of the trans-membrane go back to the ordinary resting levels as the potassium channels that are normally regulated by the voltage close. It will be noticed that the membrane gets into a pre-stimulation condition and action power ceases. It is good to note that the relative refractory period begins as the sodium channels recuperate their ordinary resting state and proceeds until the potential of the trans-membrane becomes stable at ordinary resting levels.

An example of monosynaptic reflex is the knee-jerk and patellar reflex. To demonstrate the steps that occur in a monosynaptic reflex we can use the example of a knee-jerk. The following steps occur:

  1. The muscle spindles normally sense a tap on a tendon that is usually fixed to the kneecap.
  2. The muscle spindle then creates nerve impulses patterns that are transmitted down the sensory nerve fiber.
  3. Neurotransmitters are then freed to the motor neutrons by the nerve terminals producing post-synaptic potentials that are excitatory to the body cells and dendrites of the motor neurons.
  4. Action potentials are then produced by the motor neuron that results to acetylcholine release from its muscles’ terminals.
  5. The muscle then reacts to the acetylcholine through contracting and depolarizing.

Examples of polysynaptic reflexes include, pulling a leg as one step on a spiky object or when pulls his/her hand after handling a hot stove. To show the steps that occur in polysynaptic reflex we can demonstrate using a case example of when you step on a sharp thorn. The following steps occur:

  1. The sharp thorn actually arouses pain receptors in the foot.
  2. This in reality sets in motion a sensory neuron.
  3. The sensory neurons by and large synapse with the inter-neurons inside the spinal cord making the motor neurons to be stimulated.
  4. The stimulated motor neurons cause contraction of the flexor muscles.
  5. The constricting flexor muscle raises the foot out of the thorn.


Rabbinic story is believed to be the leading outlet of rabbinic ideology which presents the world-view in a typical way. Among the main types of discourse in Talmud (a key version of the Jewish oral law considered to be as important as Torah) the rabbinic story is one of them. It is a unique genre in literature which is easy to differentiate from the Talmudic background because it uses the narrative mode to describe post-biblical characters most especially the rabbis (Hezser, 1993). The main aim of this paper is to discuss my understanding of the rabbinic story and its possible impact in my life.

Insights gained from the story

The story was narrated by the people who used to consciously invoke motifs which used to be applied to the figure of Hermes by the pagan neighbors of the rabbinic people. The rabbinic tales contain figures such as those of the angel of death and Satan where play some given functions. I wonder what invisible role this figures could be playing beyond the way the narrators have used it in the story.Without such supernatural elements the in the story, the story will not seem to have any meaning. The story teller seems to have included it for a reason. Elsewhere, the legal type of the rabbinic stories can play a role as a legal precedent whereby if a rabbi gave a statement or did something that became very important in the determination of what became law in the generations that followed.



How it might affect own life

The story helps me to appreciate the significance of Christianity as religion since it does not hold to strict laws which were at times formed by an individual in the rabbinic story.

Briefly state the story that you read

The story is mainly contempt to Herod’s pedigree. On assuming power, He kills a lot of rabbis since they would have used the bible, to call the prohibition of Deuteronomy kings from interacting with foreign Kings.